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The Global Impact of Bribery and Corruption on Economies

Corruption has negative impacts on every aspect of society and is profoundly intertwined with conflict and instability, jeopardising social and economic development, and human rights, and undermining democratic institutions and the rule of law, although democracy does not in itself lead to reduced corruption. A variety of economic, political, administrative, social and cultural factors enable and foster corruption. 

Corruption comes in many shapes and forms, and it can have serious consequences for societies, economies and individuals. To raise awareness among the general public on the impact of the prevailing malevolence that bribery and corruption brings in many countries, annually on 9 December United Nations members observe International Anti-Corruption Day which is a global observance dedicated to raising awareness about the detrimental effects of corruption on societies and economies worldwide. It serves as a call to action to combat corruption, promote transparency, and uphold ethical values in both public and private sectors.

Defining Bribery and Corruption

Bribery and corruption are often used interchangeably, but they have distinct meanings.

Put simply, corruption is the dishonest and illegal abuse of entrusted power for private gain. However, corruption is more complex. It can occur on different scales ranging from small favours between a small number of people, known as petty corruption, through to corruption that involves the manipulation of policies, institutions and rules of procedure that affects governments on a large scale, known as political or grand corruption. Corruption is present in many facets of society with people acting corruptly within a system. This is known as systemic corruption and includes organised crime. 

Corruption can happen anywhere such as in business, government, the courts, the media, and in civil society, as well as across all sectors from health and education to infrastructure and sports. It can involve anyone, for example politicians, government officials, public servants, businesspeople or members of the public. Examples of corruption can include:

  • Politicians misusing or misappropriating public money, or granting public jobs or contracts to their sponsors, friends and families
  • Public servants demanding or taking money or favours in exchange for services
  • Wealthy individuals using their influence on governments for their own interests
  • Corporations bribing officials to get lucrative deals
  • Someone exerting influence in decision-making without declaring an interest in one of the parties involved

Corruption has devastating effects on businesses and societies. It erodes trust, weakens democracy, hampers economic development and further exacerbates inequality, poverty, social division and the environmental crisis.

Bribery is a form of corruption. It means promising, offering, giving or receiving a financial or other advantage as an inducement to a person to do something which is dishonest or illegal or as a reward for doing so in the course of doing business.

A bribe is defined as an inducement or reward that is promised, offered or given to improperly gain any commercial, contractual, regulatory or personal advantage. Bribes may be paid in advance, as an inducement to a person to act improperly, or retrospectively, pursuant to a previous promise, understanding or agreement. Examples of bribery might include:

  • A public official on a trade delegation to another country requesting first-class travel and luxury accommodation in return for favourable treatment
  • Providing access to someone’s private details such as banking details or health data in return for a payment or gift
  • Offering a payment to a public official to circumvent the law such as to a judge in a court case
  • In procurement, providing an incentive in order to gain access to tender assessment criteria, or details of rival bids, or to receive a preferential evaluation of a submitted tender
  • Corporations and other businesses providing lavish hospitality with a view to gaining favourable terms or other business advantages
  • Businesses providing influencers with free or heavily discounted goods and services in return for glowing reviews and publicity

Terms that are associated with bribery and corruption include, but are not limited to:

  • Extortion
  • Embezzlement
  • Kick-backs
  • Back-handers
  • Pay off
  • Exploitation
  • Slush funds
  • Fraud
  • Nepotism
  • Sweeteners
  • Graft
  • Collusion
  • Facilitation payment
  • Shell company
  • Solicitation
  • Buy someone off
  • Match-fixing
  • Conflict of interest

The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is the most widely used global corruption ranking in the world. It measures how corrupt each country’s public sector is perceived to be, according to experts and businesspeople. A country’s score is the perceived level of public sector corruption on a scale of 0-100, where 0 means highly corrupt and 100 means very clean. A country’s rank is its position relative to the other countries in the index. Ranks can change merely if the number of countries included in the index changes. The rank is therefore not as important as the score in terms of indicating the level of corruption in that country. As of 2023, the UK has a score of 73/100 and holds ranking 18 out of 180 countries currently ranked. Denmark is ranked number 1 and has a score of 90/100.

More than two-thirds of countries score below 50, while 26 countries have fallen to their lowest scores yet. Despite concerted efforts and hard-won gains by some, 155 countries have made no significant progress against corruption or have declined since 2012.

Corruption impacts

The Economic Consequences

Corruption undermines democratic institutions and contributes to governmental instability. It also has a negative impact on prosperity and economic growth by creating business uncertainty, lowering investment levels, hampering fair competition, and reducing public finances as governments collect less in tax revenue, and overpay for goods and services or investment projects. Economic development in many developing economies is stunted with consequent effects on growth and jobs, because foreign direct investment is either discouraged or is not seen as a viable, profitable prospect. 

Corruption has been a driving force behind some of the deadliest conflicts in recent history, by helping create the conditions in which these conflicts can thrive. It perpetuates poverty, inequality and injustice, wastes funds that could be spent on development and security, and facilitates the operations of extremist groups and organised crime syndicates. Even after the conflict has stopped, the legacy of corruption can wreck peace settlements, as elite networks born in conflict jostle for political and economic control.

35% of EU businesses consider corruption to be a problem in doing business. The European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) has stated that corruption is estimated to cost the European Union between EUR 179 billion and EUR 990 billion per year, amounting to up to 6% of its GDP, and that overall, corruption can risk the erosion of trust in institutions, the rule of law and threaten social cohesion and GDP growth. 

Economic crime also poses a significant threat to the UK. Bribery, corruption and the evasion of financial sanctions pose a serious risk to the UK’s national security, economic prosperity and international reputation. The UK, and especially the London property and financial markets, is a favoured destination to launder and invest the proceeds of international corruption, posing significant reputational and financial risks to the UK. The ease of opening UK companies means that they are often used to enable corrupt activity. These UK-registered companies pay bribes overseas in order to conduct business, while companies based in large financial centres are used to disguise ownership and to conceal corrupt payments.

Transparency International (TI), a global nongovernmental organisation against corruption, cites several cases where UK companies and properties have been used to process and store the proceeds of money laundering and grand corruption. Hampstead mansions, luxury yachts and fine art are monuments to lost UK funding for healthcare, education or infrastructure.

Corrupt legislators may introduce tax exemptions or other loopholes in exchange for bribes, reducing revenue potential. More broadly, the distortion of tax laws and corruption of tax officials reduce public trust in the state, weakening the willingness of citizens to pay taxes, which has an impact on the state’s economy. Wherever it appears, corruption, or the abuse of public office for private gain, distorts the activities of the state and ultimately takes a toll on economic growth and the quality of people’s lives.

Corruption often impacts the poorest and most vulnerable in societies the most, increasing costs and reducing access to services, including health, education and justice. Corruption increases income inequality and poverty through lower economic growth, biased tax systems favouring the rich and well-connected, poor targeting of social programmes, lower social spending, use of wealth by the richest to lobby governments for favourable policies that perpetuate inequality in asset ownership, and unequal access to education and the law.

Corruption can harm the ability of governments to collect taxes in a fair and efficient way. Research suggests that tax revenues are higher in countries perceived to be less corrupt; the least corrupt governments collect 4% of GDP more in taxes than those at the same level of economic development with the highest levels of corruption. According to the World Bank, in Paraguay, the poorest households are forced to pay nearly 13% of their income in bribes, twice as much as the richest households.

In many countries, everyday petty corruption is also driving inequality; for example, new mothers in Zimbabwe are denied vaccinations for their babies unless illegal “consultation fees” are paid, and in Cameroon, children faced expulsion from school because their families could not afford to pay illegal fees demanded by the head teacher. When citizens are forced to pay bribes in order to access public services that should be free of charge, the poor and marginalised often suffer the most.

Sectors Most Vulnerable to Corruption

Corruption risks exist across all business sectors, but some sectors are more prone to corruption than others. The extractive industries, that is the industries comprising mining and quarrying, including oil and gas production, are among the highest corruption risk areas of business, accounting for one in five cases of transnational bribery according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Corruption has plagued many resource-rich countries for decades, and a boom in demand for transition minerals that underpin renewable technologies poses major corruption risks. Global Witness found that fossil fuel lobbyists at COP27 outnumbered the representatives of the 10 nations most impacted by the climate crisis. 

Some national oil companies (NOCs) are susceptible to being used by corrupt ruling elites for their own personal or political benefits. Countries with authoritarian regimes produce much of the world’s oil, with these revenues propping up Kleptocrats across the world. Kleptocracy is the term used to describe a government whose corrupt leaders (Kleptocrats) use political power to expropriate the wealth of the people. Such nations also provide ample opportunities for corruption by awarding lucrative contracts to family members or friends of those in power, which is corrupt but may not be illegal under the laws of that country. A successful Kleptocracy provides just enough revenue for the national economy to prevent popular uprisings.

The construction and infrastructure sector is another sector particularly vulnerable to corruption. In 2009, 103 construction companies were fined a total of £130 million (US$176 million) for rigging bids to inflate the cost of major building projects in England, including publicly funded projects to build new schools and hospitals. There have also been allegations of bribery and fraud, and serious concerns about lack of oversight and accountability throughout the complex supply chains involved in the refurbishment and fitting of fire safety equipment at London’s Grenfell Tower

The Global Infrastructure Anti-Corruption Centre (GIACC) points to the inherent features of construction projects as the main reason why the sector is so prone to corruption. For example, in large projects, the complex structure of contractors and subcontractors creates opportunities for bribery and extortion at every contract. As construction proceeds on a project, works are concealed under successive layers; for example, masonry is covered by cladding. This provides an opportunity to overstate material quantities and/or hide poorly executed works in exchange for a bribe. 

The involvement of governmental authorities in construction and infrastructure projects also creates chances for corruption. Public officials can favour a project for personal benefits, or simply request a gift or reward from a company to expedite a planning permission or award a contract. In addition, project funding sources and execution costs are often not disclosed due to commercial sensitivity, which makes it difficult to detect potential fraudulent practices. All these factors create an environment where corruption is difficult to prevent and uncover.

Corruption in the health sector has been found to take many forms in various areas, such as in:

  • Health facility construction
  • Equipment and supply purchasing
  • Pharmaceutical distribution and use
  • Health worker education
  • Falsification of medical research
  • The provision of healthcare services

Corruption in the procurement of drugs and medical equipment drives up costs and can lead to sub-standard or harmful products. Governments are spending $7.5 trillion a year on providing healthcare globally. But corruption means that $500 billion (7%) of that money is lost. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates $370 billion would be enough to give everyone on the planet access to healthcare. This is less than the sum lost to corruption.

Corruption in the health sector kills an estimated 140,000 children a year, fuels the global rise in antimicrobial resistance, hinders the fight against HIV/AIDS and has hampered the ability to respond to COVID-19.

Criminals find ways to exploit healthcare systems’ vastness to funnel away money and curry favour, from improper procurement to falsification or manipulation of licensing and authorisation processes, to cronyism or nepotism in appointments and awarding contracts. This diverts resources, increases service costs, and leads to the employment of poorly qualified decision makers, care providers and staff.

Many people worldwide rely on public- or state-funded healthcare, so when corruption erodes the standard of public services, private healthcare becomes the only means for quality medical care, intensifying the divide between the rich and the poor. 

Worldwide, public sector employees and those working for state-owned companies are most likely to be the target of corruption. These include top politicians, such as government ministers, presidents of state-owned companies, and officials working in, for example, customs, health and defence. 

Customs are often perceived as one of the most corrupt institutions in developing countries. Customs officials, even at junior levels, enjoy extensive discretionary powers. Although they often experience poor pay and difficult working conditions, they interact daily with traders who have a strong incentive to influence their decisions. This creates an environment ripe for corruption. 

Almost every function performed by customs is vulnerable to corruption including:

  • The assessment of goods’ origin, value and classification
  • Cargo examination
  • The administration of concessions, suspense, exemption and drawback schemes
  • Post-clearance audit
  • Transit operations
  • Passenger processing
  • The issuing of various licences and approvals
  • Access to authorised or preferred trader schemes which confer special privileges to selected traders

The Cost of Corruption

According to PricewaterhouseCoopers, the second-largest professional services network in the world, of the over 7 billion people alive in the world today, over 6 billion live in countries where corruption is endemic. More than US$1 trillion is the estimated cost paid each year in bribes globally and US$2.6 trillion is also lost to corruption, which is 5% of global GDP. The true figure is probably even higher. And 24% of global organisations report being victims of bribery and corruption.

In developing countries, according to the United Nations Development Programme, funds lost to corruption are estimated at 10 times the amount of official development assistance. It was estimated that Africa loses more than US$50 billion a year to illicit flows, although this could be as high as US$89 billion a year, or 3.7% of its GDP, according to UNCTAD’s Economic Development in Africa Report 2020. Over the past 50 years, Africa has lost more than US$1 trillion equivalent to all the official development assistance received during the same period.

Corruption and international perceptions of corruption in South Africa have been damaging to the country’s reputation and have created obstacles to local and foreign direct investment, flows to the stock market, global competitiveness, and economic growth, and have ultimately distorted the development and upliftment of their people. Whilst South Africa scores 41, which is above the regional average of 32, on the CPI scale, public sector corruption is a serious problem. In June 2022, a judicial commission led by Chief Justice Raymond Zondo delivered the final findings of a three-year inquiry into deep-rooted corruption and about the way state resources were plundered in South Africa. This included crippling the country’s revenue service, bringing the national carrier South African Airways to its knees, looting the agency that runs the country’s passenger railways, and interfering with the public broadcaster, the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC). It also shows how the wealthy businessmen, the Gupta brothers, tried to influence political and economic decisions in a process known as “state capture”. 

Former President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych fled the country to Russia in 2014 amid allegations of corruption. President Viktor Yanukovych and his associates allegedly made US$40 billion in state assets disappear. As he fled, Yanukovych left behind documents that showed how he financed a life of luxury at the expense of his citizens. This included the multimillion-dollar 137-hectare estate at Mezhyhirya which boasted some of these attractions – a golf course, a luxury car collection, an ostrich farm, a private zoo, a full-size Spanish galleon replica and even a loaf of bread made of solid gold. Swedish public broadcaster SVT reported that Yanukovych’s shell company with a Swedish bank account received a US$3.7 million bribe in 2011 and executed two transactions with a total worth of US$18 million in 2007 and 2014. So far, the Ukrainian government has recovered just US$1.5 billion. Just before Russia’s full-scale invasion on 24 February 2022, President Volodymyr Zelenskyy had finally started to embark on an anti-corruption drive, more than two years after his 2019 landslide election. Ukraine’s CPI score has improved and is 36/100 as of 2023; however, the realities of corruption, and Russia’s ongoing war against Ukraine, show how dangerous the consequences of unchecked power can be and have prompted foreign investors to shy away.

Countries that have experienced the economic costs of corruption are not only limited to foreign powers; the UK has seen a five-point decline in its 2023 CPI score of 73/100 since its 2021 score of 78/100, and this stands as a warning that countries in the top tier of the index are still vulnerable to the perception of corruption and undue influence. Examples of this in the UK are individuals with political connections being appointed to senior public sector roles during the COVID-19 pandemic and a fifth of UK COVID-19 contracts raising red flags, warranting further investigation including:

  • 24 PPE contracts worth £1.6 billion were awarded to those with known political connections to the Conservative Party
  • Three contracts worth £536 million went to politically connected companies for testing related services
  • Between February and November 2020, 98.9% of COVID-19 related contracts by value (£17.8 billion) were awarded without any form of competition, many without adequate justification
  • 14 companies incorporated in 2020 received contracts worth more than £620 million, of which 13 contracts totalling £255 million went to 10 firms that were less than 60 days old

All of this has raised serious questions about transparency in Westminster, and whilst corruption has not been implied, nepotism has, with investigations being carried out. Current estimates of the total cost of government COVID-19 measures range from about £310 billion to £410 billion. This is the equivalent of about £4,600 to £6,100 per person in the UK. Official figures show that spending in 2020/21 was about £179 billion higher than had been planned before the pandemic for that year. All public spending is eventually paid for by taxes and other government income, but the amounts raised by these methods fell during the pandemic. Although most spending directly related to the COVID-19 pandemic ended after 2021/22, public spending may have to remain high to respond to the long-term effects of the pandemic and that will mean less money available for other public spending.

Global impact of bribery

Impacts on Social Welfare

Corruption can have many consequences, and the theft of public funds by corrupt acts means that, for example:

  • Fewer roads, schools and hospitals are built
  • Less money is available for social services, education and healthcare

In consequence, people suffer deprivation, illness and death. The consequences fall disproportionately on the poor and vulnerable. Corruption, bribery, theft and tax evasion cost developing countries some US$1.26 trillion per year. This would be sufficient to lift the 1.4 billion people living on less than US$1.25 a day above the poverty threshold and keep them there for at least six years.

One of the most striking examples of the devastating impact of corruption on our lives is that, globally, over 7% of healthcare expenditure is lost to corruption, as noted in Transparency International’s 2019 report.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that in 2021, about 4.5 billion people, which is more than half of the global population, were not fully covered by essential health services. Corruption and lack of good governance in these countries undermine the delivery of quality essential healthcare services in an equitable manner, make it costly for the poor and disadvantaged, and result in poor health outcomes.

Education is a fundamental human right and a major driver of personal and social development. Corruption contributes to poor education outcomes. Diversion of school funds robs schools of resources, whilst nepotism and favouritism can put unqualified teachers in classrooms. Bid-rigging may result in textbooks and supplies of inferior quality. When families must pay bribes for services, this puts poor students at a disadvantage and reduces equal access to education.

Examples of corruption in the education sector in some countries include, but are not limited to:

  • Illegal charges are levied on children’s school admission forms, which are supposed to be free
  • School places are auctioned to the highest bidder
  • Good grades and exam results are obtained through bribes to teachers and public officials. The prices are often well known, and candidates are expected to pay upfront
  • Examination results are only released upon payment
  • Examination questions are sold in advance
  • Examination candidates pay others to impersonate them and sit exams for them
  • There is embezzlement of funds intended for teaching materials, school buildings, etc.
  • Teacher recruitment and postings are influenced by nepotism, favouritism, bribes or sexual favours
  • Salaries are drawn for ‘ghost teachers’ – staff who are no longer (or never were) employed for various reasons, including having passed away. This affects de facto student-teacher ratios and prevents unemployed teachers from taking vacant positions
  • Bribes are paid to auditors for not disclosing the misuse of funds
  • Politicians allocate resources to certain schools to gain support, especially during election periods

In many developing countries, corruption is often not the exception to the rule, but an entrenched system including in the education sector.

Bribery and corruption impede the efforts to reduce poverty. In particular, the diversion of funds intended for public services through corrupt practices undermines attempts by citizens to achieve higher levels of economic, social and environmental welfare.

Anti-Corruption Efforts

Thirty years ago, corruption was not even discussed in international settings. Today, there is unanimous agreement that corruption undermines the rule of law, posing a threat to governance systems and to sustainable development.

On 12 May 2016, Prime Minister David Cameron hosted a landmark international anti-corruption summit in London bringing together heads of state, civil society, business leaders and investigative journalists from around the world to agree a package of practical steps to expose and end corruption. Statements were made by individual countries setting out the concrete actions they would take in order to tackle corruption. 

The International Anti-Corruption Coordination Centre (IACCC) was officially launched in July 2017 and is hosted by the National Crime Agency in London. It brings together specialist law enforcement officers from multiple agencies around the world to tackle allegations of grand corruption. Law enforcement agencies that are participants of the IACCC include:

  • Australian Federal Police
  • New Zealand’s Serious Fraud Office
  • New Zealand Police
  • Royal Canadian Mounted Police
  • Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau of the Republic of Singapore
  • UK’s National Crime Agency
  • USA’s Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • US Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), Homeland Security Investigations (HSI)
  • Since 2019 Interpol has regularly deployed to the IACCC to provide support

New IACCC Associate Members are:

  • The Cayman Islands Anti-Corruption Commission
  • The Gibraltar Financial Intelligence Unit
  • The Guernsey Financial Intelligence Unit
  • The Isle of Man Financial Intelligence Unit
  • The Jersey Financial Intelligence Unit
  • The Mauritius Independent Commission Against Corruption
  • The Seychelles Anti-Corruption Commission
  • The Turks and Caicos Islands Integrity Commission

The UK law enforcement’s response to bribery, corruption and sanctions evasion, involves working with partners to tackle the threat. The National Crime Agency’s International Corruption Unit (ICU) investigates international bribery, corruption and related money-laundering offences. Its key role is to investigate:

  • Money laundering in the UK resulting from corruption of high-ranking officials overseas
  • Bribery involving UK-based companies or nationals which has an international element
  • Cross-border bribery where there is a link to the UK

The ICU also traces and recovers the proceeds of international corruption.

The World Bank Group has been working to mitigate the pernicious effects of corruption in its client countries for more than 20 years. The World Bank Group works at the country, regional and global levels to help build capable, transparent and accountable institutions and design and implement anti-corruption programmes relying on the latest discourse and innovations.

The United Nations Development Programme initiatives (UNDP) support the legitimacy of public authorities and trust in governance. The UNDP’s work in anti-corruption has been instrumental in advancing the transparency, accountability and integrity agendas at global, regional and country levels. The UNDP integrates anti-corruption solutions in service delivery sectors, strengthening the institutional capacity of government institutions, civil society organisations, and the private sector to prevent and address corruption, leveraging technology and innovation for integrity and anti-corruption, and leading anti-corruption knowledge and global advocacy.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organisation that works to build better policies for better lives. Their member countries work with other countries, organisations and stakeholders worldwide to address the pressing policy challenges. The OECD Anti-Bribery Convention establishes legally binding standards to criminalise bribery of foreign public officials in international business transactions and provides for a host of related measures that make this effective. It is the first and only international anti-corruption instrument focused on the supply side of the bribery transaction.

Transparency International is a global anti-corruption movement working in over 100 countries to end the injustice of corruption and to promote transparency, accountability and integrity at all levels and across all sectors of society. 

For over 20 years, Transparency International has published a Corruption Perceptions Index that ranks countries (180 last year) according to how corrupt they are perceived to be. The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is derived by aggregating 13 different perception surveys and it is important to stress that it ranks countries on the perception of corruption; however, corruption is, almost by definition, hidden so perhaps impossible to measure with great accuracy. 

Transparency International’s current projects for tackling corruption include: 

  • The Global Anti-Corruption Consortium – a ground-breaking partnership that brings together investigative reporting from the Organised Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP) and advocacy driven by Transparency International.
  • Integrity pact – a global standard for safeguarding strategic public investments.
  • Climate Governance Integrity Programme – collecting evidence of corruption cases linked to climate governance.

The Role of Technology

In recent years, the fight against corruption and economic crimes has expanded to incorporate the use of emerging technologies that afford more real-time and online deterrence and monitoring. These emerging technologies have reduced human intervention, improved monitoring, and digitised processes and procedures such that automation has become the new and improved way of delivering services to the public. For example, in Nigeria, mobile applications, crowdsourcing platforms and transparency portals are leading the way against corruption. Crowdsourcing platforms allow citizens to report corruption incidences and publicly share individual experiences via the internet or telephone. In many developing countries, mobile applications are now increasingly used to empower citizens in remote areas, making information more accessible and providing platforms for feedback and reporting.

There are new data management techniques to prevent fraud and abuse in the public sector. These have been employed in the fields of public health, trade and taxation where predictive analysis and visualisations that determine trends, patterns and relationships in massive volumes of data, are used to gain valuable insights. 

Blockchain could be applied by governments for public transactions and documents, for example for tracking budget spending, saving land records and company registries, or reshaping contracting and payment systems. 

With its ability to learn data structures, Artificial Intelligence (AI) can potentially uncover hidden relationships such as corruption and can be used for more precise prediction models.

The use of digital public services and e-governance reduces direct contact points between citizens and public officials. They automate processes, thereby removing opportunities for public officials to misuse their discretionary powers. This involves the use of ICT, particularly the internet, web-enabled devices, and electronic data management systems, for the provision of public services to citizens. 

Technology will continue to play a crucial role as a driver of anti-corruption initiatives. There is, however, a considerable IT skills gap among people across the world particularly in Africa and this will impact the pace of change. Also, whistleblowing tools can only function if complemented by whistle blower protection legislation, and this protection is often missing in many jurisdictions.

bribery and corruption on economies

Final Thoughts

As we have seen in this article, there are many countries and international organisations working in collaboration to combat all levels of bribery and corruption. Bribery and corruption is not constrained by borders; it is an international problem needing international solutions. International cooperation can help engender both the will to fight bribery and corruption and the capability to do so. 

The vast majority of United Nations Member States are parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption, an international initiative requiring collaborative working. The Convention covers five main areas: preventive measures, criminalisation and law enforcement, international cooperation, asset recovery, and technical assistance and information exchange. The Convention covers many different forms of corruption, such as bribery, trading in influence, abuse of functions, and various acts of corruption in the private sector and is the only legally binding universal anti-corruption instrument.

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Lily O'Brien

Lily has worked with CPD Online College since November 2023. She helps out with content production as well as working closely with freelance writers and voice artists. Lily is currently studying towards gaining her business administration level 3 qualification. Outside of work Lily loves going out and spending quality time with friends, family and her dog Mabel.



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