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Techniques for Improving Focus and Concentration in ADHD Patients

Understanding ADHD and Its Impact on Focus

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that significantly impair daily functioning. It affects individuals across the lifespan, with symptoms often manifesting in childhood and continuing into adulthood. According to statistics from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 5% of children and 3-4% of adults have ADHD. 

ADHD symptoms can vary widely among individuals but generally fall into two main categories: inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity.

  • Inattention: Inattention symptoms include difficulties sustaining attention, frequent careless mistakes, difficulties organising tasks, forgetfulness and easily getting distracted by external stimuli.
  • Hyperactivity/impulsivity: Hyperactive and impulsive symptoms can manifest as excessive fidgeting, restlessness, difficulty staying seated, impulsive decision-making and interrupting others.

Some people with ADHD experience the inattentive subtype of ADHD whereas others experience the hyperactivity/impulsivity subtype. Some individuals with ADHD experience the combined subtype, whereby they experience symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. 

ADHD profoundly affects a person’s ability to concentrate and sustain attention. Individuals with ADHD may struggle to focus on tasks that require sustained mental effort, leading to frequent distractions and difficulties completing tasks. They may also experience challenges in filtering out irrelevant stimuli, making it hard to prioritise and stay on task. Additionally, impulsivity and hyperactivity further interfere with concentration by disrupting thought processes and increasing the likelihood of impulsive actions. This combination of symptoms can significantly impair academic performance, work productivity and interpersonal relationships.

Addressing focus and concentration challenges in ADHD patients is important for several reasons:

  • Academic and occupational success: Improved focus enhances academic performance and productivity in the workplace, enabling individuals with ADHD to reach their full potential.
  • Social and interpersonal relationships: Enhanced concentration facilitates better communication and interaction with others and can help create healthier relationships and social connections.
  • Emotional well-being: Overcoming focus and attention difficulties can reduce feelings of frustration, low self-esteem and anxiety commonly associated with ADHD and promote overall emotional well-being.
  • Long-term functioning: Developing effective coping strategies for managing focus and concentration challenges early in life can lead to improved long-term outcomes and quality of life for individuals with ADHD.

Understanding the impact of ADHD on focus and concentration highlights the importance of implementing targeted interventions to help individuals with ADHD manage their symptoms and thrive in various aspects of life.

Medication as a Treatment Option

For some people with ADHD, medication plays a central role in helping them manage their symptoms. Medication often serves as a primary treatment modality, alongside behavioural interventions. Understanding the role of medication and consulting with healthcare professionals are important steps in effectively managing ADHD symptoms.

Medication can be an effective treatment option for ADHD because it can target the underlying neurochemical imbalances associated with the disorder. The most common types of medication used to treat ADHD are:

  • Stimulant medications:
    Stimulants such as methylphenidate and amphetamine-based medications are among the most commonly prescribed medications for ADHD. These medications work by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain, which play key roles in attention and impulse regulation. Stimulants can help individuals with ADHD by enhancing focus, concentration and cognitive control and reducing impulsivity and hyperactivity.
  • Non-stimulant medications:
    Non-stimulant medications, such as atomoxetine and clonidine, are alternative options for individuals who may not respond well to stimulants or have concerns about their side effects. These medications work through different mechanisms, such as increasing norepinephrine levels or targeting specific brain regions involved in attention and impulse control. While non-stimulant medications may take longer to show effects compared to stimulants, they can be effective in managing ADHD symptoms, particularly in individuals with comorbid conditions or substance use concerns.

Consulting a healthcare professional, such as your GP, a psychiatrist or a psychologist specialising in ADHD, is essential for ensuring medication is the best treatment option. Consulting with a healthcare professional can ensure personalised and comprehensive care and appropriate medication management. Healthcare professionals can conduct thorough assessments to accurately diagnose ADHD, evaluate the severity of symptoms and determine the most suitable medication regimen based on individual needs and preferences. 

Furthermore, ongoing monitoring and adjustments to medication dosage and type may be necessary to optimise treatment outcomes and minimise side effects. Healthcare professionals can provide valuable guidance and support throughout the treatment process and ensure that medication interventions are safe, effective and tailored to each patient’s unique circumstances.

Behavioural Strategies and Techniques

Effective management of ADHD extends beyond medication to include various behavioural strategies and techniques that can significantly enhance focus and concentration. These approaches aim to help individuals with ADHD develop skills to manage their symptoms and improve their daily functioning.

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT):

CBT is a type of psychotherapy that focuses on identifying and changing negative thought patterns and behaviours. It can be particularly effective for individuals with ADHD by addressing both the cognitive and behavioural aspects of the disorder. CBT can be particularly beneficial for:

Developing coping strategies

CBT helps individuals with ADHD to identify negative thought patterns that can exacerbate symptoms of inattention and impulsivity. By recognising these thoughts, individuals can learn to challenge and reframe them which can lead to improved emotional regulation and coping mechanisms. 

Improving organisational skills

CBT often includes practical exercises aimed at improving organisational and planning skills. Therapists work with individuals to develop personalised strategies for managing daily tasks, such as:

  • Breaking tasks into smaller, manageable steps.
  • Using lists and schedules.
  • Setting realistic and achievable goals.

Improving time management

Time management is a common challenge for individuals with ADHD. CBT can provide techniques to improve time management skills, such as:

  • How to prioritise tasks.
  • Using timers and alarms for specific periods of focused work followed by breaks to help maintain concentration.
  • Creating visual reminders, such as calendars, planners and sticky notes.

Managing emotional dysregulation

ADHD often coexists with emotional dysregulation, where individuals experience intense emotional responses. CBT can assist in:

  • Identifying and understanding triggers and developing strategies to manage these triggers effectively.
  • Practising emotional regulation techniques, such as deep breathing, mindfulness meditation and progressive muscle relaxation to help individuals manage stress and emotional responses.

Improving self-esteem and self-confidence

People with ADHD often face criticism and setbacks, which can impact their self-esteem. CBT helps by:

  • Building self-awareness: Understanding their strengths and weaknesses allows individuals to leverage their strengths and work on areas that need improvement.
  • Encouraging self-compassion: Learning to be kind to themselves despite mistakes promotes a healthier self-image.
  • Celebrating successes: Recognising and celebrating small achievements can improve self-confidence and motivation.

Establishing consistent routines

CBT encourages the development of structured routines, which can help manage ADHD symptoms by providing a predictable and organised framework for daily activities. This consistency helps reduce forgetfulness and improve task completion rates.

Diet and Nutrition

Diet and nutrition can influence the symptoms and management of ADHD. Dietary changes alone can play a supportive role in reducing symptoms and improving overall well-being. Nutrient deficiencies or imbalances can exacerbate symptoms like inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. On the other hand, a well-balanced diet can help stabilise energy levels, enhance brain function and improve mood and behaviour.

A balanced diet with essential nutrients can be beneficial in the following ways:

Omega-3 fatty acids:

  • Benefits: Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are important for brain health and function. Studies have shown that children and adults with ADHD often have lower levels of omega-3 fatty acids.
  • Sources: Fatty fish (such as salmon, mackerel and sardines), flaxseeds, chia seeds, walnuts and omega-3 supplements.
  • Impact: Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids has been associated with improvements in attention, cognitive function and behaviour in individuals with ADHD.


  • Benefits: Antioxidants help combat oxidative stress, which has been linked to ADHD symptoms. They support brain health by protecting neurons from damage caused by free radicals.
  • Sources: Fruits and vegetables (especially berries, citrus fruits and leafy greens), nuts, seeds and dark chocolate.
  • Impact: A diet rich in antioxidants can help improve cognitive function and reduce symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity.


  • Benefits: Protein is essential for neurotransmitter production, which affects mood and concentration. A protein-rich diet can help maintain steady blood sugar levels throughout the day.
  • Sources: Lean meats, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes, nuts and seeds.
  • Impact: Including protein in meals and snacks can improve attention and reduce symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity.

Complex carbohydrates:

  • Benefits: Complex carbohydrates provide a steady release of glucose, which is crucial for brain function. They also support the production of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that influences mood and behaviour.
  • Sources: Whole grains (such as oats, quinoa and brown rice), vegetables, fruits and legumes.
  • mpact: Consuming complex carbohydrates can help maintain energy levels, improve mood stability and reduce symptoms of irritability and inattention.

Vitamins and minerals:

  • Benefits: Various vitamins and minerals play key roles in brain function and overall health. For example, magnesium, zinc, iron and B vitamins are particularly important.
  • Sources: A diverse diet including leafy greens, nuts, seeds, whole grains, lean proteins and dairy products.
  • Impact: Adequate intake of these nutrients supports cognitive function, attention and emotional regulation.

Minimising sugar and processed foods:

  • Drawbacks: High consumption of sugar and processed foods can lead to blood sugar spikes and crashes and contribute to symptoms like hyperactivity, irritability and inattention. Processed foods often contain artificial additives, preservatives and dyes, which some studies suggest may exacerbate ADHD symptoms in sensitive individuals.
  • Impact: Reducing intake of sugary and processed foods can help stabilise blood sugar levels, enhance focus and reduce hyperactive behaviour.

A balanced diet rich in essential nutrients can positively impact ADHD symptoms by supporting brain health, stabilising energy levels and improving mood and behaviour. As dietary needs can vary, it can be helpful for people with ADHD to work with healthcare professionals, such as nutritionists or dietitians, to tailor dietary plans to their specific needs.

Physical Activity and Exercise

Another effective technique for improving focus and concentration in people with ADHD is physical activity. Exercise has been shown to have a positive impact on cognitive function, attention span and overall mental health. Engaging in physical activity can help an individual manage the symptoms of ADHD in multiple ways. 

Physical activity increases arousal levels and helps sustain attention and focus. It enhances the ability to concentrate on tasks and reduces distractions which can lead to better performance in academic and work settings. Regular exercise can also help reduce hyperactive and impulsive behaviours by providing an outlet for excess energy. This can lead to more controlled behaviour and improved self-regulation. Additionally, exercise stimulates the release of endorphins, which are natural mood lifters. A positive mood can increase motivation and engagement in activities, further supporting sustained attention.

Exercise can help regulate neurotransmitters and enhance cognitive function in the following ways:

Regulating neurotransmitters:

  • Dopamine: Physical activity increases the levels of dopamine in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure, motivation and attention. Higher dopamine levels improve the brain’s ability to focus and maintain attention, which is often deficient in individuals with ADHD.
  • Norepinephrine: Exercise also boosts the production of norepinephrine, which is involved in alertness and concentration. Enhanced norepinephrine levels help improve the ability to pay attention and stay focused on tasks.
  • Serotonin: Exercise promotes the release of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood and behaviour. Increased serotonin levels can reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression, which often co-occur with ADHD and can impair focus and concentration.

Enhancing cognitive function:

  • Neurogenesis: Regular physical activity promotes neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons, particularly in the hippocampus, a region of the brain associated with learning and memory. This can lead to improved cognitive function and better academic and work performance.
  • Synaptic plasticity: Exercise improves synaptic plasticity, the ability of synapses (connections between neurons) to strengthen or weaken over time. This is essential for learning, memory and cognitive adaptability.
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF): Physical activity increases the levels of BDNF, a protein that supports the survival, growth and differentiation of neurons. Higher BDNF levels improve cognitive function, memory and overall brain health.

Reducing stress and anxiety:

  • Cortisol reduction: Exercise helps reduce levels of cortisol, the body’s stress hormone. Lower cortisol levels can lead to a calmer mind, reducing anxiety and allowing for better concentration and focus.
  • Mindfulness and relaxation: Engaging in physical activities such as yoga or tai chi can teach you how to incorporate mindfulness and relaxation techniques, which help improve mental clarity and focus.

To maximise the benefits of physical activity for ADHD, it is recommended to engage in a variety of activities such as running, swimming, cycling and dancing and strength training, such as weightlifting. Not only can these types of exercise improve physical fitness and cardiovascular health, but they can also improve brain function. Aiming for at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise 4-6 days a week can help to maximise the benefits of physical activity for people with ADHD and enhance their quality of life. 

Sleep and Rest

Adequate sleep is essential for optimal cognitive function and overall mental health, particularly for individuals with ADHD. Quality sleep is essential for cognitive processes such as attention, memory and executive function. During sleep, the brain consolidates memories and processes information from the day, which is essential for learning and retaining new information.

Lack of sleep impairs attention and concentration and can exacerbate ADHD symptoms. Sleep deprivation can lead to increased distractibility, difficulties sustaining attention and poor impulse control, all of which can significantly affect academic and work performance. Adequate sleep also helps regulate emotions and reduce irritability and mood swings. Emotional stability is important for maintaining focus and avoiding the negative impact of stress and frustration on concentration. Sleep supports the brain’s ability to manage behaviour and impulses and insufficient sleep can lead to increased hyperactivity and impulsive actions, further complicating the management of ADHD symptoms.

There are several strategies you can implement to help maintain healthy sleep patterns, including:

  • Establish a bedtime routine
    Establish a consistent sleep schedule, where you go to bed and wake up at the same time every day, even on weekends. Consistency helps regulate the body’s internal clock, making it easier to fall asleep and wake up naturally. Additionally, a relaxing pre-bedtime routine that includes activities such as reading a book, having a bath or practising relaxation exercises like deep breathing or meditation can signal the body that it’s time to relax.
  • Create a sleep-conducive environment
    A comfortable sleep environment can contribute to improved sleep. Ensure your bedroom is quiet, dark and cool and use blackout curtains, white noise machines or earplugs to minimise disturbances. You could also invest in a comfortable mattress and pillows that support restful sleep.
  • Minimise screen time before sleep
    Limit exposure to electronic devices, such as phones, tablets, computers and TV, at least one hour before bedtime. The blue light emitted by screens can interfere with the production of melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep. If screen use is necessary, enable night mode or blue light filters on devices to reduce the impact on sleep.
  • Mindful eating and drinking
    Limit caffeine and nicotine intake, especially in the afternoon and evening, as these substances can interfere with the ability to fall and stay asleep. It can also be beneficial to avoid large meals close to bedtime, as they can cause discomfort and disrupt sleep.
  • Physical activity
    Engage in regular physical activity during the day. Exercise can help regulate sleep patterns and improve sleep quality. However, avoid vigorous exercise close to bedtime, as it may be overstimulating.
  • Manage stress and anxiety
    Practise relaxation techniques such as mindfulness, meditation or gentle yoga to reduce stress and prepare the body for sleep. For some people, writing down any thoughts or worries before bed can help clear the mind and prevent anxiety from interfering with sleep.
  • Limit naps
    If naps are necessary, keep them short (20-30 minutes) and avoid napping late in the day to prevent interference with night-time sleep.

Support Systems

A robust support system is vital for individuals with ADHD and can provide essential emotional, practical and social resources. A well-rounded support network can significantly enhance the management of ADHD symptoms and improve overall quality of life. 

Friends and family who understand ADHD can offer empathy and patience. This understanding reduces feelings of isolation and frustration and helps to create a supportive and nurturing environment. Positive reinforcement from loved ones can boost self-esteem and motivation and encouraging words and actions help individuals stay focused on their goals and persevere through challenges. Family and friends can assist with organisational tasks, reminders and maintaining routines. For example, they can help create structured environments at home and provide reminders for important tasks and appointments. Emotional support is important for managing the stress and emotional ups and downs associated with ADHD. Having someone to talk to and share experiences with can significantly reduce feelings of anxiety and depression.

For children and adolescents, teachers and educators are also an important aspect of their support system. Teachers can implement individualised education plans (IEPs) to accommodate the unique learning needs of students with ADHD. These plans might include extended time on tests, breaks during tasks and alternative assignment formats. Additionally, educators can create a structured and predictable classroom environment that helps students with ADHD stay focused and organised. Clear instructions and consistent routines are beneficial. Teachers can use positive reinforcement to encourage good behaviour, and with academic performance using praise, rewards and recognition can motivate students with ADHD to stay engaged and on task. Regular communication between teachers and parents ensures that strategies are aligned at home and school, providing a consistent support network for the child.

Some people with ADHD also benefit from joining a support group. Support groups offer a platform for individuals with ADHD and their families to share their experiences, challenges and successes. This shared understanding creates a sense of community and belonging. Members of support groups can exchange practical advice and coping strategies, and learning from others who face similar challenges can provide new perspectives and solutions. Support groups also offer a safe space to express emotions and frustrations. Knowing that others are going through similar experiences can provide comfort and reduce feelings of isolation. 

There are several organisations that support people with ADHD, including:

Building a strong support system can help individuals with ADHD to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. Different members of a person’s support system can all play an important role in providing understanding, encouragement and practical assistance. Together, these support networks create a comprehensive framework that helps individuals with ADHD navigate their challenges and thrive in various aspects of their lives.

The Role of Healthcare Professionals


  • Medication management: Psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialise in mental health. They can prescribe and monitor medications that help manage ADHD symptoms. Medications can significantly improve focus, attention and impulse control.
  • Comorbid conditions: Psychiatrists can also identify and treat comorbid conditions that often accompany ADHD, such as anxiety, depression and oppositional defiant disorder.


  • Assessment and diagnosis: Psychologists conduct comprehensive assessments to diagnose ADHD, which includes gathering information from various sources, such as self-reports, teacher reports and standardised testing.
  • Behavioural interventions: Psychologists provide therapies that address the behavioural and emotional aspects of ADHD. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is particularly effective in helping individuals develop coping strategies and modify negative thought patterns.

Therapists and counsellors

The treatment of ADHD is not one-size-fits-all. Personalised treatment plans are tailored to meet the unique needs and circumstances of each individual and ensure the most effective and holistic approach to managing the disorder.

The first step in a treatment plan is a comprehensive assessment. A healthcare professional, most likely a psychiatrist or psychologist, will conduct a thorough evaluation to understand the specific symptoms, strengths and challenges faced by the individual. This includes looking at the medical history, conducting psychological assessments and getting input from family members and teachers. Understanding the individual’s background helps in identifying any genetic or environmental factors that might influence ADHD symptoms.

Following an ADHD diagnosis, the psychologist or psychiatrist will then create a customised treatment plan. Based on the individual’s specific symptoms and medical history, psychiatrists can prescribe appropriate medications. Regular follow-ups are essential to monitor the effectiveness and adjust dosages as needed. Alongside medication, therapeutic interventions, such as CBT, will likely be recommended. Therapeutic interventions will focus on the person’s specific behavioural and emotional needs. Healthcare professionals can also recommend lifestyle changes that support treatment, such as dietary modifications, exercise routines and sleep hygiene practices.

Effective ADHD management often involves a team of professionals working together, including psychiatrists, psychologists, therapists, educators and sometimes occupational therapists. This collaborative approach ensures that all aspects of the individual’s well-being are addressed. Involving family members in the treatment plan helps provide consistent support and reinforcement of strategies at home. Family therapy can also improve communication and understanding within the household.

By consulting with healthcare professionals, individuals with ADHD can achieve better symptom management, improved functioning and a higher quality of life.

  • Skill building: Therapists and counsellors can help individuals with ADHD develop essential life skills, such as time management, organisational skills and problem-solving abilities.
  • Emotional support: Therapy sessions offer a safe space for individuals to express their feelings and work through emotional challenges related to ADHD.
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About the author

Nicole Murphy

Nicole Murphy

Nicole graduated with a First-Class Honours degree in Psychology in 2013. She works as a writer and editor and tries to combine all her passions - writing, education, and psychology. Outside of work, Nicole loves to travel, go to the beach, and drink a lot of coffee! She is currently training to climb Machu Picchu in Peru.

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